• A test bed for intelligent autonomous wheelchair research and development
  • Autonomous mobile platform using behavior-based AI (New AI) techniques
  • Uses active infrared and ultrasonic sensors for obstacle avoidance and maneuvering in complex environments
  • Seemless manual override with original joystick control
  • Powerful two-motor, mid wheel drive for good power and acceleration
  • Comes with basic behavior set using inputs from standard sensors
  • User's own behaviors easily developed using C language and GNU-C compiler
  • Free-space detection and landmark-based navigation using optional vision systems
  • Behavior control by voice using optional voice recognition interface
  • Generation of voice outputs from behaviors using optional voice synthesis interface
  • Can run using conventional position control method using optional encoders
  • Open design for easy addition of user options in hardware/software


CPU: Motorola MC68332 32-bit microcontroller
RAM: 1 MByte
ROM: 64K Bytes
LCD display: 2 x 16 characters
Sensors: 13 IR sensors
8 ultrasonic sensors
1 CCD camera
Behavior-based vision system: V3 vision processor (TMS320C6202GJL-200 by Texas Instruments) is used. Maximum frame accuracy: 720 x 480. Processing speed of basic affordance: 15 ~ 40 frames/second. User's other processor can be added on board.
Battery: 2 x 12 V 55 Ah sealed lead-acid batteries
Safety: 2 kill switches, joystick, basic collision avoidance behavior
User I/O ports: 6 analog to digital
6 digital input
8 digital output
1 serial port
Language: C language (GNU-C language compiler, TMS320C6200 compiler)
Chair: Length: 100.3 cm (39.5 inches)
Width: 64.5 cm (25.4 inches)
Tires: 35.6 cm (14 inches) drive wheels
20.3 cm (8 inches) rear casters
15.2 cm (6 inches) anti-tip wheels
Weight Capacity: 138 kg (300 lbs) maximum
Maximum Speed: 4.5 mph (8 kph)
Ground Clearance: 8.9 cm (3.5 inches)
Turning radius: 49.5 cm (19.5 inches)
Run time: 28 km (on flat surface)

Video Clip - TAO-1 is running autonomously in the office
Windows Media Player (1.4 MB)


  • PC/104 processor
  • Navigation system
  • DGPS system
  • Voice I/O
  • Many standard AAI and other options can be installed

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